Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture

                                                                                       Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas, Monasteries and Castles.

England, Wales, Scotland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway;           Please follow this link

England   1. Early Christian                       (c300-350)                    Mosaics of Chedworth Villa 1 2 (++)

               2. Anglo-Saxon                         (c450-1066)                   doorway and quoin of Odda's chapel , window and dragon form of St. Mary's, Deerhurst, font details 1 2 3 of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, Frampton on Severn, sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, belltower windows 1 2 of
                                                                                                      St. Bartholomew's, Cadeleigh, belltowers 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and St. Mary's, Upton Hellions,
                                                                                                      window of  St.Matthews, Cheriton Fitzpaine, tower of St. Oswalds church, Highnam, tower of St. Michael's
                                                                                                      church, Oxford, tower (random) of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, cross and archway of St. Mary and
                                                                                                      All Saints church, Hawksworth, archway of All Saints church, Turkdean, fragments 1 2 of Winchcombe Abbey,
                                                                                                      quoin, spandrel and fragments 1 2 of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, dragonform of Malmesbury Abbey, (++++),
                                                                                                      interior and exterior of doorway, at St. Winwalo's church, Tremaine, chancel carving , tomb slab and window
                                                                                                      of St. Mary's church, Bibury, window, doorway and herringbone pattern at St. Andrew and Bartholomew
                                                                                                      church, Ashleworth, sundial of St. Nicholas's church, Saintbury, sundial, lintelcapital, and sculptures
                                                                                                      1 2 of Holy Rood church, Daglingworth,  crucifix of St. Katherine's church, Wormington, doorway(s), birdforms
                                                                                                      and sundial detail  of St. Andrew's church, Castle Frome, sundials of St. Giles church, Bredon, (##), window of
                                                                                                      Holy Mary church, Ampney Crucis
, font, jambs arch and saddleback tower of St. Peter's church, Ampney,
                                                                                                      splay window of St. Mary's church, Barnsley, splay windows 1 2 and arches 1 2 of St, Giles' church,
                                                                                                      Aston Piper, (####), lintel above arch at St. Giles' church, Acton Beauchamp, doorway of St. Leonard's church,
                                                                                                      Hatfield, (G), splay window, front and rear view, of Edvin Loach church, (I).
               3. Celtic                                     (c500-1150)                  Font of St. Mary's, Deerhurst.
               4. Carolingian                             (c700-900)                   Capitals 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Bibury, (###).
               5. Romanesque                          (c1066-1170)                window with details 1 2 3 and dragonform ,(^),of St. James the Great church, Stoke Orchard, exterior
                                                                                                      tympanum and corner capital, chancel arch, (corner capital and decoration), nave and wall painting
                                                                                                      of St. Mary's church, Kempley, doorway , column , stringcourse details 1 2 3 4 5 and dragonform of
                                                                                                      Kilpeck church (+), doorway of Saint James, Jacobstowe, columns 1 2 of St. Swithun's, Sandford and
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, windows of Glastonbury Abbey, archways1 2 of St. Mary and Holy Trinity
                                                                                                      church, Buckland Filleigh, font carvings 1 2 of  St. Mary the Virgin church, Frampton-on-Severn, sculpture
                                                                                                      at St. Mary's church, Temple Guiting, fragment of St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, archway, corner capital,
                                                                                                      tympanum and  lancet window of the church of St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, (********), tympanun
                                                                                                     (detail), voussoirs and dragonform of  St. George's church, Brisop, (*********),west door, archway,
                                                                                                      alternating and continuous orders of Malmesbury Abbey,  (**********), tympanum of St. Gregory's
                                                                                                      church, Treneglos, (***********), tympanum (detail) of St. Peter's church, Handborough, doorway
                                                                                                      with beakhead ornament, capitals 1 2 of Romsey Abbey, (#), font details 1 2 3 of St. George's church,
, (H).
               6. Norman                                 (1066-1180)                  corner capital (s)of Buckfast Abbey, windows of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 
                                                                                                      (interior view) (linear), 4 (interior view) (detail)(random) (*), window of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window of St. Martin and Mary's, Chudleigh, windows of St.Petroc's church, Lydford  1 (harmonic),
                                                                                                      2 (random), 3 (harmonic, random), windows of St. Mary's, Huxham 1 (harmonic)  2 (random),
                                                                                                      window (harmonic) of St.Mary's, Exbourne, arch scroll of  St. James, Jacobstowe, windows
                                                                                                      (interior view) (harmonic) of  Winchester Cathedral, windows of Tewkesbury Abbey, window
                                                                                                      (random) of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, belltower (detail) (harmonic) of Exeter Cathedral,
                                                                                                      windows of St. Peter the Poor Fisherman, Revelstoke, 1 (interior view)2 (interior view)
                                                                                                      (harmonic),  window (random) of St. Disen's church, Bradninch, gargoyle, pillar (random) and stones of
                                                                                                      St. Euny's church, Redruth, windows 1 (harmonic) 2 (random) of , King Charles the Martyr's church,
                                                                                                      Falmouth, font details 1 2 of St. Margaret's church, Topsham, Exeter, tower of St. Nicholas of Myra's
                                                                                                      church, Ozleworth, capitals 1 2 3 of St. Mary the Virgin church, Iffley, archway of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Turkdean, archway of St. John the Baptist church, Ruardean, (+++), archway of St. Oswald's Priory,
                                                                                                      Gloucester, archway of St. Mary de Crypt, Gloucester, volute capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt,
                                                                                                      (*******), nave arcades, dragonform and dragonforms of Malmesbury Abbey, beakhead ornamentation,
                                                                                                      arch boss and dragonforms capital of Old Sarum church, (+++++), doorway, pillar and serpentform
                                                                                                      tympanum of St. Corentine's church, Cury, (++++++), interior tympanum and doorway with dragonform
                                                                                                      tympanum of St. Petrock and St. Keri's church, Egloskerry, (+++++++), tympanum and volute capital of
                                                                                                      St. Nicholas's church, Saintbury, doorway and dragonform(s) of St. Cassian church, Chaddesley Corbett,
                                                                                                      archway and corner capitals left (detail), right (detail) of  St. Eadburgha's church, Ebrington, (++++++++),
                                                                                                      font of Holy Mary church, Ampney Crucis, font of the Ivy church, Ampney St. Mary, egg moulding of St.
                                                                                                      Mary's church, Barnsley, doorway, capitals, and dragonform detail of St. John the Baptist church, Coln St.
                                                                                                      Aldwyn's, doorway, orders with diamond arch detail, sunform, capital and  green man detail of St. Swithun's
                                                                                                      church, Quenington, (+++++++++), jambs, cushion capital , orders and archform at St.Nicholas church,
                                                                                                      Idbury, font of St. James the Great church,  (++++++++++) , windows 1 2 , interlaced blind arcades, interior
                                                                                                      and exterior, archways 1 2capitalpillarmouldingstarform, crosses, diagonal and concentric, fragments
                                                                                                      1 2 of Glastonbury Abbey, (+++++++++++), capitals 1 2 and archways 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Bishop's
                                                                                                      Frome, archform and dragonform detail of St. Giles' church, Aston Piper, (++++++++++++), window and
                                                                                                     doorway of St. John the Baptist church, Cirencester, doorway at St. Michael's church, Yanworth, wall painting
                                                                                                     at St. Oswald's church, Shipton Oliffe, (C), font details 1 2 3 4 of St. Michael's church, Castle Frome, volute
                                                                                                      capitals and archway at St. Mary's church, Bishops Frome, (D), volute capitals and archway at St. Giles
                                                                                                      church, Acton Beauchamp, volute capitals and archway at St. Mary's church, Yarkhill, (E), fragment of Old
                                                                                                      Sarum castle, (F), doorway and font of St. Anna's church, Thornbury, (J), archway, volute capitals 1 2 and
                                                                                                      corner capital of St. James's church, Avebury, (K), volute capitals 1 (detail), 2 (detail), of St. John the Baptist
                                                                                                      church, Great Rissington, (L), details 1 2 of font in St. Mary's Priory, Abergavenny, (M), pillar (detail) of St.
                                                                                                      John the Baptist church, Circencester, (O), font details 1 2 at St. Peter's church, Bromyard, (P), archway of
                                                                                                      St. John the Baptist church, Tredington.

               7. Response to Geometric          (1240-1280)                 Shields at St. Andrew's church, Cullompton and Thomas A Becket's church, Sourton, Devon, pillar of
                                                                                                      Holy Mary church, Ampney Crucis, (&), arches at St. Mary's Priory, Abergavenny, (N).
               8. Curvilinear. (Decorated)         (c1275-1380)               Chapterhouse of Southwell Minsterwest window of York Cathedral ,windows of St. Mary's Cheltenham;
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7vault of Ottery, St. Mary's, Devon, cloister windows 1 2 3 4 5 6, and  rose window of
                                                                                                      Exeter Cathedral.
               9. Perpendicular                         (c1380-1520)                Font details 1 2 at the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (^^), fan vault and column of All Saints' church,
                                                                                                       Evesham, doorway of St. Lawrence's church, Evesham.
France;    1.  Carolingian                          (c768-840)                     Oratory , apse (detail) and exterior windows of Germigny-des-Pres, (!!).
                2.  Celtic                                  (c1125-50)                     Clearstorey fragments of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges.
                3.  Romanesque                       (c1000-1200)                 Chevet of St. Benoit-sur-Loire, south porch of Anzy-le-Ducnave and chevet of
                                                                                                      Montmajour, nave of Tournus abbey, doorway of St. Sernin cathedral, Toulouse,
                                                                                                      Vignory cathedral,  chevet of Saint Austremoine, Issoire, chevet of Notres Dame du Port,
                                                                                                      Clermont-Ferrand,  chevet of Saint Hilaire church, Semur-en-Brionnais, chevet of
                                                                                                      Fontevraud Abbey, doorway of Cathedral of Saint-Trophime, Arles, westwork of
                                                                                                      Sacre-Coeur, Paray-le-Monial, sculpture from the Cathedral of  Limoges, sculptural reliefs
                                                                                                      of the Abbey of Saint-Marie-de-la-Regle, Limoges, archways and pillar of the church at
                                                                                                      Lanleffpillars of St. Croix, Quimperle, archways and pillar of St. Sauveur, Dinan. cloister
                                                                                                      of Saint Saveur Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence. cloister of Senanque abbey, capital of Saint
                                                                                                      Benigne church, Dijon, lunette of Abbey Sant Marie, Arles-sur-Tech, reliefs of Saint Sernin
                                                                                                      Cathedral, Toulouse, capital of  Cluny Abbey, Burgundy, crypt pillars of Mont St-Michel (!!!!).
                4. Pre-conquest
                    Norman/Romanesque          (c1020-1066)                 Capitals 1 2 of Bayeux Cathedral crypt, ambulatoryclearstorey and nave of the
                                                                                                      Abbaye-aux-Dames, Caen, clearstorey views 1 2 3 4 5 of Mont St-Michel abbey,
                                                                                                      volute capitals 1 2 and windows 1 2 of Bernay Abbey, (G).
                5.  Norman                              (1066-1140)                   corner capital (s) of Morienval, chevet, ambulatory, facade, windowsclearstorey
                                                                                                      vault and towers of St. Foy,Conques, nave of Bayeux Cathedral (****), windows
                                                                                                      (harmonic) of Eglise Saint Pierre d'Airvault, belltower of Cunault priory church, window
                                                                                                      of Charlieu Abbey, chevet of Saint Hilaire, Melle, exterior and windows of abbey churches
                                                                                                      of Thaon and Lessay, capitals 1 2 3 4 5 6 from the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges,
                                                                                                      Bayeux tapestry images 1 2 3 4, church of Saint Etienne-le-Vieux, Caen, nave and clearstorey
                                                                                                      of Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, (H).
                6.  Early Gothic                        (c1140-1195)                 Ambulatory of Saint Denis   
                7.  Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                 Nave and facade of Silvacane Abbey.                
                8.  Geometric (High Gothic)      (c1195-1240)                Clearstorey of Saint Denis, ambulatory, nave and clearstorey of Reims Cathedral
                                                                                                      clearstoreyfacademaze details 1 2, west and north rose windows of Chartres Cathedral,
                                                                                                      apse and nave clearstoreys of  St. Peter and St. Paul, Troyes, nave of Notres Dame Cathedral.
                9.  Rayonnant                           (c1240-1350)                North rose window of Saint Denis, westsouth and north rose windows of Reims,
                                                                                                      rose window of Troyes, south and north rose windows of Notres-Dame, upper
                                                                                                      storey of Saint Chapelle
                10. Regional Gothic                    (c1240-1385)              chapel of Papal Palace, Avignon 

Italy;        1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                  Mosaics from the basilicas of San Clemente (detail), Santa Maria Maggiore,
                                                                                                      nave and mosaics from Santa Maria in Cosmedin, facade and mosaics Santa Maria in Trastevere,
                                                                                                      pillars (detail) of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome.
                2. Ottonian                               (909-1024)                    Octagon of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello.
                3. Anglo-Romanesque              (c1050-1137, 1159)      archways 1 2, pillars 1 2 and trefoil window, interior views 1 2, of  Santa Maria Maggiore church, Alatri,
                                                                                                      ciborium of Santa Maria in Valle, Porclaneta, pulpit of Abbazia de Santa Maria del Lago, Moscufo, (*****)..                 
                4. First Romanesque                (c900-1030)                  Lombard bands 1 2, nave (north side), archway and chancel arch, rose window, detaildragonform and
                                                                                                     interior view, of  San Pietro, Tuscania,  cupola, transept, nave archway, facade and transverse arches 1 2
                                                                                                     of Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, pulpit, facadebelltower and pillars 1 2 of the Basilica of Saint Ambrogio,
                                                                                                     Milan, facade and columns of San Martino, Tarquinia, facade and pillar of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, (***).
                5. Second Romanesque         (c1030-1200)                  Cathedral of Civita Castellana and San Vittoria, Monteleone Sabino, nave and south portal (dragonform detail)
                                                                                                     of San Antimo (~),  Church of  Aregno, Corsica, facade (detail) and nave of the Cathedral of Anagni , Church of
                                                                                                     San Silvestro, Bevagna, Cathedral of Ferentino, clearstorey (detail) of San Benedetto, Subiaco, Cathedral of
                                                                                                     Frosinone, fragments at Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome, ambo of Sant Ambrogio, Milan, frieze of Modena
                                                                                                     Cathedral, (!!!!!), dragonform detail of the pulpit in Abbazia de Santa Maria del Lago, Moscufo, archforms at
                                                                                                    the Abbazia di San Clemente a Casauria, archforms at the Duomo di Sessa Aurunca  (~ ~).
                6. Cosmati                             (c1190-1300)                  Cloisters of  San Scholastica, Subiaco, San Giovanni in Laterano and San Paolo fuori Le Mura
                                                                                                     in Rome, pavements of San Lorenzo fuori Le MuraSanta Maria in Cosmedin,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, and San Benedetto, Subiaco, ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, ciborium of basilica of  Castel Sant'Elia, cloister of Sasso Vivo, near
                                                                                                     Foligno, (a rare example in England is the pavement of Westminster abbey), ciborium of Santa
                                                                                                     Maria in Cosmedin, Rome, pavement of San Cataldo church,  pavement (detail) of Palazzo
                                                                                                     Normanni and pavement details 1 2 3 4 of Monreale cathedral, Palermo.
                7. Cistercian                            (c1180-1250)                Abbeys of San Galgano in Tuscany, and Fossanova cloisters, Casamari cloisters, Valvisciolo
                                                                                                     cloisters (detail) in Lazio, church of San Michele, Arcangelo, Bevagna.
                8. Response to English             (c1275-1300)                tomb in San Francesco, Viterbo.   
                9. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)               Arcade of  Palazzo dei Papi ,Viterbo.
                10. Norman                             (c1070-1200)               Arches 1 2 of San Cataldo church, archway of Palazzo Normanni, archcloister, apse and choir pavements
                                                                                                    of Monreale Cathedral, Palermo, arches 1 2 and lancet window of Cefalu cathedral, Sicily, cupola and
                                                                                                    belltower of Sant Pancrazio, Tarquinia (!).
                11. Regional Gothic                  (c1250-1385)              Abbey of  Monte Oliveto, near Siena, church of  Sant Agostino, Visso, tower of Corciano,
                                                                                                    Upper church of San Francesco d'Assisi, Assisi, church of San Francesco, Viterbo,
                                                                                                    monastery of Farfa (tower), facade of San Francesco, Tarquinia, facade of Messina Cathedral..

Spain;      1. Visigoth                                 (c660-930)                  Churches of San Juan de Banos, Banos de Cerrato, San Pedro de la Nave, Campillo, Zamora,
                                                                                                     Santiago de Penalba, San Cebrian de Mazote, Ponferrada, archway and pillar (s) of the church
                                                                                                     of El Salvador, Toledo, church of  Santa Maria del Naranco, Oviedo.
                2. Romanesque                         (c1075- 1150)               Nave of Santiago de Compostela Cathedralrose window and cupola of San Miguel de Breamo,
                                                                                                     Coruna, archway and windows of San Roman, Toledo, archway of Santiago de los Caballeros,
                                                                                                     Santa Lucia, San TomeSan Isidoro, windows 1 2 of San Esteban and Santa Maria La Nueva,
                                                                                                     facade of San Antolin, Zamora.
                3. Norman                                (c1085)                        windows (random) and pavement of the church (originally a synagogue) of Santa Maria la Blanca, (**),
                                                                                                     belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the churches of San Tome, San Sebastian, San Andres, San Pedro Martir,
                                                                                                     San Domingo el Antiguo, Santiago del Arrabal, Toledo, cupolas 1 2 3 4 5 of the churches of San
                                                                                                     Domingo el Antiguo, San Vincente, Santiago del Arrabal, and convents of Santa Ursula, San Isabel,
                                                                                                     Toledo, vault, arches of the mosque of Cristo de la Luz and archways of Puente de San Martin
                                                                                                     (Visigoth influence), Toledo, (**), cupola of Seu Argell cathedral, belltowers 1 2 3 4 5 6 of the
                                                                                                     churches of Santiago del Burgo, San Pedro y San Ildefonso, San Juan de Puerta Nueva, San Vincente,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria la Horta, San Cipriano, Zamora, cupolas1 (interior view) 2 3 4 5 of Santa Maria Magdalena,
                                                                                                     Santa Maria La Nueva, Santa Maria La Horta, Santiago Caballeros, San Claudio de Olivares,
                                                                                                     Zamora, archways 1 2 (random) of Santiago del Burgo, Zamora, (******)..
                4. Cistercian                            (c1180)                          Cloisters of  Santa Maria de Oia
                5.  Cusp                                  (c1280)                          Cloisters of the monastery of San Juan de Reyes
                6. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                Nave of  Bilbao Cathedral


Germany;  1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c765)                            Konigshalle of Lorsch Abbey.
                 2. Carolingian                          (c 800)                           Octagon of Aachen cathedral, (!!!!!!).
                 3. Pre-Romanesque                (c920-1024)                   Westworks of the abbey churches of   Gernrode and Hildesheim
                 4. Romanesque                       (c1025-1200)                Westworks of Worms and Speyer cathedrals, and abbey churhes of Fredesloh  and Maria Laach

Holland;    1. Romanesque                       (c1000-1050)                Westwork of the basilica of  San Servatius, Maastricht.

Israel;        1. Romanesque                       (c1075-1150)               Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
                 2. Cosmati                              (c1190-1300)                pavement of the Holy Sepulchre.

Turkey;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of  ChoraHagia Sophia, Constantinople.
Greece;     1. Byzantine                              (c400-1300)                 Monastery of Helandarion, belltower at Vatopedi monastery, pavement at Iveron monastery, Mount Athos.

Ireland;    1. Celtic                                    (c900-1000)                    High Cross of Monasterboice, High Cross at Ahenny.
                2. Anglo-Saxon                         (c600-800)                     doorway of Ratass church, doorway of Our Lady's church, doorway of Reefert church, Glendalough,             
                                                                                                        doorway of St. Fechin, Fore, doorway of the church of Sons of Nessan, east end doorway and west
                                                                                                        end window at St. Molua's church, Killaloe, archforms of Christchurch Cathedral crypt, Dublin, illustrations
                                                                                                        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 from the Book of Kells, Kells, exterior window, arcadeapse, towers 1 2 and
                                                                                                        westwork, interior pillars 1 2 of Cormac's chapel, Rock of Cashel, blind arcading at Kilmalkedar church,
                                                                                                        Kerry (A).
                3. Anglo-Saxon/Carolingian       (c800)                             window of church of Sons of Nessan, (!!!).
                4. Norman                                (c1180)                           Abbey of Fore
                5. Anglo-Norman                      (c1084-1111)                  archform at Killaloe Cathedral, (!!!!!!!), font and gravestone of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny, 
                                                                                                         exterior window and doorway, interior doorway, chancel archwindow and corner capitals 1 2 3
                                                                                                         of Cormac's chapel, Rock of Cashel, (B).    
                6. Cistercian                              (c1150)                           Abbey of Mellifont , Abbey of Boyle , Abbey of Hore.
                7. Romanesque                         (c1200-1250)                  Church of Teampall Mor, Abbey of Cong , Abbey of Jerpoint , Nun's Church, Clonmacnoise.
                8.  Lancet                                 (1180-1240)                    Abbey of Timoleague, pillar and nave of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny.
                9. Perpendicular                        (1400)                             Abbey of Quin
                10. Augustinian                           (c1450)                          Priory of St. Mary's

     (+)         The Y-shape of the tree in the tympanum of the doorway, echoed by the V-shape of the apex angel, also the braiding pattern of the stringcourse element suggest
                   an Anglo-Saxon influence, the presence of Lombard bands in the interior column and the dragon form are characteristic of the First Romanesque style, although
                   Zarnecki argues that they be derived from Scandinavean influences. In "Later English Romanesque Sculpture", he also identifies the abaci as Anglo-Norman, possibly
                   due to the use of diagonals and the beak head ornamentation, as characteristic of the later English Romanesque period, 1140-1210, see also (******) here.  The
                   arms of the Y point to one of the fishes of the Zodiac and the head of a dragon, features of the corbels in the centre of the north and west side walls. The symbol of
                   the lamb and cross appear at the centre of the east and west walls, the cross appearing at St. Mary's church, Temple Guiting.. Zarnecki identifies the style as part of
                   the Herefordshire school of sculpture.   

    (++)        The Christian influence may be due to a chi-rho symbol found engraved on the Nymphaeum, predating the villa's mosaics.

    (+++)      Also a feature of the Herefordshire school.

   (++++)     See also (+), (++) here.

   (+++++)    We can attribute the Norman influence, due to the lack of grooving in the dragon heads of the third and fourth archways, and the use of cushion capitals in the six
                     archways of the nave. Both the Anglo-Saxon and Norman designs, see (++++), appear at the junction of the second and third archways, creating a harmony with
                     the total number of arches on the north side. Zarnecki suggests that the designs were influenced by those at Old Sarum, a ruined castle in Wiltshire, (c1150). The
                     beakhead ornament at Old Sarum church, now in the Salisbury museum, is clearly Norman due to the chevron moulding at the base, Zarnecki also mentions the
                     figure at Old Sarum appears at the apex of an arch, but the capital has moved from the museum.
  (++++++)   The embattled pattern on the pillar, similar to the frieze design of the central doorway at Lincoln Cathedral, created in about 1145, according to Zarnecki, confirms
                     the Norman influence. The chevron pattern, a development of the usual one, found for example at Tewkesbury Abbey, is identical to that at Mylor. The head at the
                     right of the five interlocked rings, is suggestive of a serpentine form, the circles may represent the main four islands of Scilly and Lundy.
(+++++++)   The vertical line of the interior tympanum follows the north-south direction of Lundy island, passing between England and Ireland, the diagonal cross connects
                     Egloskerry with Mylor and Byton, as mentioned in (********) here. The dragon form is associated with a circle, also a symbol of the Knights Templar, and
                     present at Tremaine, the form may be pointing towards Cury, see also (++++++).

(++++++++)  The volute capital and diagonal patterning of the tympanum at Saintbury, together with the cushion capitals and chevron design at St. Cassian are typically Norman,
                       see also (*******), the dragon forms on the font are of the same period, and, presumably, of Lombard influence, see also (~).  The corner capital appears
                       at Ebrington, but the jamb on the doorway and the recessed arch at Ebrington confirm an Anglo-Saxon influence in this Anglo-Norman style. The right side column
                       at Ebrington features a face looking away, and, on the left, a figure looking towards it, indicating some asymmetry in Norman art. The figure on the left might depict a
                       medium rasing the dead. 

(+++++++++)  The font at Ampney Crucis with an octagonal base and the 8-point sunform at Quenington again confirm the use of an even number of points in Norman art, see
                        (***), and (*********) here. The green man symbol in the north door at Quenington and the grooved dragon head at Coln St. Aldwyns are Anglo-Norman, see
                        (++) and (/////) here. There are 3 orders in the extrados and intrados of the arch at Coln St. Aldwyn's and the south doorway at Quenington, with 2 orders in the
                        intrados and 3 orders in the extrados of the north doorway. They have exclusively chevron (3); egg/dart, beakhead, chevron (3); chevron, sunform (2) and
                        egg/dart, chevron, chevron (3) mouldings, with a diamond scroll and an embattled pattern over the green man.

(++++++++++)  The style of the arch at Idbury is Anglo-Norman with recessing, jambs, a cushion capital and 3 orders; plain, chevron and diaper. The font at Stoke Orchard uses
                        the interlace design, which Thomas Bell claims originates at Winchester Cathedral, (c1090). The T-design of the supporting pillars appears in the Anglo-Saxon arch
                        at Muchdewchurch and may be based on an early Anglo-Saxon original, but I haven't seen pillars of this kind in England. This is another Anglo-Norman feature.

(+++++++++++)   The wider circular headed windows of St. Mary's chapel are copied from an earlier French design, which can be found at Bernays Abbey in Normandy (c1020),
                               see  (****), but they are now clustered, and also shorter than those at Llanthony Priory in Wales. The interlace design of the blind arcades on the north and south
                              walls are a development of the pattern at Winchester Cathedral, which Thomas Bell dates to 1090 and claims is the earliest example, see  (++++++++++). The
                              orders in the archways, 3 and 4, are similar to Malmesbury Abbey, (c1150), see (+++++). The cushion corner capital, found in the museum is also clustered with
                              a V, duplicating a single groove, as at Worcester Cathedral. Zarnecki dates cushion capitals from 1066-1100, with Worcester being the earliest example, see 
                              (****) here. He dates corner capitals from 1100-1140, see (*****) here. The star fragment is similar to one found at Brewardine, see (+++++) here , which is
                              early 12th century. The T-design of the pillar in a fountain fragment  font occurs at Stoke Orchard, see (++++++++++), while the diagonal cross fragment is similar
                              to one at Mylor in Cornwall, see  (++++) here. The egg and dart moulding can be found at Quenington, see (+++++++++), but I haven't seen the diagonal cross
                              and U-design. St. Mary's chapel might have been built about 1150, about the same time as Malmesbury, but, probably earlier the rest of the Abbey which is
                              transitional, c1180, see (***********) here.

(++++++++++++) The exterior capitals are clustered volutes , see (****) and (*******), derived from France, and the interior capitals are clustered cushions, with an Anglo-Saxon
                               influence, see (****) and (**********) here, both belonging to the Anglo-Norman style, (c1150)  the exterior archway having a chevron marking and the interior
                               archway unmarked. It is likely local craftsmen were used in the construction of the interior, while French artisans were imported for the exterior part, probably about
                               1150, as at Glastonbury, due to the clustering of the capitals. Innovations might have involved architects following designs, possibly in pattern books or books on
                               geometry.  The exterior archform at Aston Piper is Anglo-Norman due to the chevron pattern and use of jambs. There is a dragon form detail which is probably not
                               influenced by Lombard art due to the lack of twists or knots in the tails, see (~).
     *               It is the author's opinion, that the random fragments found in a number churches from  Devon and Cornwall derive from architectural motifs found in Spain, see (**),
                     whereas the harmonic elements, originate in the French Norman/Romanesque style. Many of these architectural elements are used in later constructions, from
                     different periods, but the initial geometrical idea remains.  

      **          The idea being that this form is a pointed version of the Visigothic horseshoe arch, developed in conjunction at San Martin.        
      ***        The presence of Lombard bands in both the facade and cupolas at Santa Maria Maggiore, Lomello, date the building (c1000-1050) to the Lombard or First
                     Romanesque style. According to  "Lombard Architecture", by A.K.Porter, "The transverse arches of Lomello, therefore, may be accepted as the earliest
                     known erected over a nave". Lombard bands can also be found on the belltower of the Basilica of San Ambrogio, Milan, and at San Pietro in Tuscania. There
                     is a similarity between the design of the south transept at Lomello and the facade of San Michele Maggiore, Pavia. The use of ionic and corinthian orders in the
                     nave capitals at San Pietro, and of doric orders in the nave capitals at San Ambrogio, Milan, and San Martino, Tarquinia, confirm the view that the First
                     Romanesque was influenced by Greek architecture. Circular arches are of course adopted from the Roman triumphal design, but the height in the nave, as at
                     Lomello, seem to be a Lombard innovation, developed later by the Normans, as at St. Foy, Conques. Semi circular and circular motifs, together with dragon
                     forms, and a numbering of 12,19 and 26, can also be found in the rose window at San Pietro, it is possible there is a Norman as well as Lombard influence here.  

      ****       The style, here, should be compared carefully, with the design of cupolas in Toledo, Zamora and Lomello.  There is less of an emphasis on asymmetry, in favour of a
                      harmonious pattern. The use of circular arches in combination with a high vault, as at Lomello, is rare, and  it is an interesting architectural question as to how the vault
                      was supported. The chevet is a Norman development of the Carolingian inventing of radiating chapels, see (!!). Both Peter Strafford in "Romanesque Churches of
                      France" and Kenneth Conant in "Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200", date the nave at Bayeux to 1077.

       (G)         Zarnecki cites Bayeux Cathedral and Bernay Abbey as examples for the origin of volute capitals, which occur later at Gloucester Cathedral, see (*******). However,
                      the grooved capitals at Bayeux suggest an Anglo-Saxon influence as well. Strafford notes that the crypt at Bayeux Cathedral belongs to the earlier church, buit before
                      1066. Both Strafford and Conant date the Abbaye-aux-Dames, built for William the Conqueror's wife Matilda, to 1060/1062, before the conquest. The wider circular
                      headed window can be found at Bernay (c1020), with a later similar example at Glastonbury Abbey (c1100), the divided arches can be found later at Tewkesbury
                      Abbey (c1100).  Strafford and Conant date the clearstorey of Mont St-Michel from 1023/1024, before the conquest again; the circular headed windows with the
                      volute capitals  are similar to those at Bernay Abbey. Conant dates Bernay Abbey from 1017.

       (H)           Both Strafford and Conant date the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, where William the Conqueror was buried, to 1068, after the conquest.

      *****      George Zarnecki takes the view that Anglo-Saxon traditions continued in the English Romanesque style, from 1050 into the 12th century, with little influence from the
                      Norman conquest. The church at Alatri can be dated back to 1137, and shows some aesthetic similarities with Anglo-Saxon churches in England, for example the
                      narrow circular arches and pillars in the aisles, similar to those found at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire, and All Saints church, Turkdean. The use of the trefoil, introduced
                      at Winchester cathedral arouund 1180, with its emphasis on a triangular geometry, could also be related to the Anglo-Saxon use of dogtooth in windows and archways, and
                      the inclusion of spandrels in architecture. A fragment from St. Oswald's Priory, dating from the Anglo-Saxon period, in the Gloucester Museum, shows similarities with a
                      braiding pattern found at Anagni. Lloyd and Jennifer Laing  in "Celtic Britain and Ireland" suggest that the interlace design has an Anglo-Saxon origin, similar  to work found
                      at the Sutton Hoo 2 burial site.  The pulpit and ciborium (c1150) are mentioned in "Romanesque Sculpture in Italy" by Crichton, who attributes the trilobate arches to an
                      Islamic source, but the trefoil form can be found earlier at Alatri, and the trefoil arch also occurs in England around 1180, for example at Hailes Abbey.   

      ******    The use of an asymmetrical cupola dates possibly back to the Lombard church at Lomello, the Norman presence in Italy from 999, and in Spain, from 1085, suggests that
                      they developed the idea in Spain later. 

      *******  According to "English Romanesque Sculpture, 1066-1140", by George Zarnecki, such capitals (1089) are derived from the Corinthian design, and influenced by architecture
                      in Normandy, France, citing Bernay Abbey (c 1010) as a predecessor, see (****). .

     ******** The geometrical motifs at St. Mary the Virgin, Dymock, and St. Mary's, Kempley, are clearly related, with the spiral patterns asymmetrical and at opposite sides in the two
                      churches. The spiral designs occurs symmetrically in the chancel arch at Kempley, a feature of the Romanesque style in Italy, with the chancel arch decoration doubling the
                      frequency of the crests in the wall painting, above a semicircle, from red and grey to yellow. The corner capital style confirms the development as Norman, see also (***)
                      of this page and (****), (*****) here.

   *********    Work of the Herefordshire School, according to Zarnecki, see (******). The lance of St. George is pointing to the dragon and a bird, possibly a sandpiper or curlew.
                         It's direction is opposite to that of the cross at Byton, and perpendicular to the Y at Kempley, see (+) of this page and (*****) here.

   **********   According to Zarnecki, belonging to the period of Late Romanesque sculpture in England, from about 1160-1170. He mentions the diamond shaped and scroll patterns
                          appearing on the inner doorway, referring to the orders as alternating. He compares the outer doorway to that of Aulnay in France, which displays a continuous or repeating
                          pattern, but believes the development here is English. He also notes the fragment of the west doorway.

  ***********  The leonine beasts, facing each other across the palm tree, might be a precursor to the use of lions in medieval heraldry.
         (#)             Zarnecki dates the tympanum to the early 12th century, the Agnus Dei symbol appears next to the lion, in reference to the evangelist St. Mark. This does not signify
                          that the lion wil lie down with the lamb; "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the
                          fatling together; and a little child shall lead them." (King James Version). Zarnecki dates the beakhead ornament at St. Ebbe's church  to about 1150, and notes the
                          influence of similar sculptures at Reading Abbey, from about 1130, the earliest known examples, which also influenced the Herefordshire School. In an article with
                          Henry, "Romanesque Arches Decorated with Human and Animal Heads", he argues that the designs may originate from Anglo-Saxon bird symbols, used in
                          manuscripts, though the use is usually in conjunction with the Norman chevron pattern, see (+++++). George Baxter in "Beakhead Ornament and the Corpus of
                          Romanesque Sculpture" dates the Old Sarum beakheads to 1130, and those at Reading Abbey to 1121, but Zarneck believes the latter are from about 1130,
                          so it seems to be an open question where exactly in England they originated. Baxter notes the presence of beakhead ornaments in Ireland, for example at
                          Clonmacnoise, noting a connection with French examples, but Zarnecki suggests they may have been introduced from Spain. The capitals at Romsey Abbey date
                          from 1140, and have a French Carolingian influence, see (!!!!). 

        (##)           The carving is difficult to see, but shows a slightly recessed Anglo-Saxon arch, which Clapham  believes are more common in the North of England, but can also be found
                          at Bradford-on-Avon. The strip on the exterior south wall, close to the chancel arch, as at Coln Rogers, is also mentioned in Clapham, but has a base block. There
                          is a round headed window which doesn't seem significant, but is again cited. I could find a double splay type, as at Bradford-on-Avon, though slightly pointed,. I'm
                          wondering if this is the one he means. The tomb slab is now in the British museum, and, according to Clapham, is Anglo-Saxon but with a Norwegian influence, the
                          Ringerike style. The herringbone pattern seems to be Anglo-Saxon, with similarities to the network at Earl's Barton, and using the dogtooth form. The doorway shows
                          recessing, again an Anglo-Saxon feature, the trefoils in the window are probably later, but, as I argue in (*****) are probably related to an Anglo-Saxon original. The
                          sundials at Daglingworth and Saintbury are similar, with 3 grooves beneath the central axis, representing the monastic times of Vespers, Sext and Matins, and suggesting
                          a 10-spoke design, similar to that at Kempley, see also (********).. The crucifixon sculptures at Wormington and Daglingworth are similar with a horizontal and vertical
                          design, rather than aY-shape, see (oo) here, suggesting that the Anglo-Saxons used both forms. The remaining Daglingworth sculpture shows the right hand in blessing. There
                          is an Anglo-Saxon bulged capital at Daglingworth, similar to Earl's Barton. The doorways at Castle Frome are typically Anglo-saxon with narrow circular arches, jambs and
                          slight recessing. The sundial is also similar in form to those at Daglingworth and Saintbury, but without visible grooving. The sundials at Bredon exhibit grooving patterns, as
                          at Daglingworth and Saintbury.

        (###)          One of the capitals shows acanthus decoration, which Clapham compares to a design at Chichester Cathedral above the chancel, and can also be found in tenth century
                          manuscripts of the Winchester school. It must be earlier than possible Roman influences, for example near Coln St. Aldwyn's, from around 950, though I
                          haven't seen these. 

       (####)         The splay window at Barnsley has a slightly flattened, semi circular apex, see (##),  which I couldn't find at Bibury, though mentioned by Clapham, and I found a replica at
                           Ampney St. Mary. The jambs and tower at Ampney are typically Anglo-Saxon with oblong and triangular forms, which are mirrored, with semi circles in the font, there is
                           also an oblong window at Ampney Crucis. There are two types of splay window at Aston Piper, the shorter forms similar in appearance to those, for example, at Morienval
                           and Conques, in France, see (****),  while the longer forms appear at Llanthony Priory, in Wales, and the Church of Sons of Nessan, Ireland, see (\\\\) here  and (!!!).  

          (!)            The first use of a lancet window form, with a slight apex, occurs at Cefalu Cathedral, an inspiration for the later style in England. The replacement of curves with more linear
                          forms is an influence on the Cosmati artists who worked later at Palermo; you can find more about their work in the following paper and I consider the relationship with
                          symmetry here.   

         (!!)          Peter Stafford in "Romanesque Churches of France", (2005), dates the church to 805, and argues that it is a precursor to the Romanesque style, noting the originality of
                        the apses and the interior apse detail. He also notes a similarity with Visigothic architecture, in the exterior keyhole arch forms. The plan here shows the first development
                        of radiating chapels in the apses of the east end and single apse in the west. Kenneth Conant in "Carolingian and Romanesque Archiecture 800-1200" makes the point that
                        development of this echelon idea occurs at Saint Philibert de Grandlieu (c814) 1 2 3 and Saint Germain, Auxerre (c850) 4, see also (!!!).  

         (!!!)         George Petrie in "The Ecclestical Architecture of Ireland, Anterior to the Anglo-Norman Invasion", (1845), gives a careful analysis of Saxon architecture at Our
                         Lady's church at Glendalough, St. Kevin's church at Reefert and the church at Ratass. He measures the dimensions of the top and bottom of the three doorways
                         there to be 2ft 6''/3ft, 2ft 6''/2ft 9'' and 2ft 8''/3ft 1'', a difference of 6'', 3'' and 5''. This asymmetry marks a different style, using the trapezium form, and the
                        progression of differences might suggest the chronology of the three churches, which he dates to about the 6th/7th centuries. This form can also be found in the
                        east doorway at Killaloe. Thomas Bell notes the use of a circular arched window, with Corinthian capitals at the west end of Killaloe, but only refers to a pointed
                        arch window at the east end, which I couldn't find from the image. The use of lintels at Glendalough, Reefert and Ratass and a double moulding as in splay windows,
                        anticipates the later Anglo-Saxon style in England, from around the 9th century. Cormac's chapel has square headed capitals, see also (!!!!!!!), with a Corinthian design.
                        Due to Bell's dating, they must belong to an earlier period than the mainstream style of Anglo-Saxon architecture in England, but I would still describe them as belonging
                        to the Anglo-Saxon period. Christchurch has a herringbone network over the arch, see also (###). Petrie also dates the church on Ireland's Eye to the 7th century, on
                        historical grounds connected to the sons of Nessan.  He notes the dimensions of the west front doorway, as 2ft 8''/3ft, a difference of 5'', and notes that it had then been
                        moved, but presumably subsequently replaced. The style conforms to early Saxon examples in England, for example at Deerhurst, which is about 9th century, with a similar
                        use of lintels in the arch. He doesn't mention the window form on the east side, which, due to the height, and the semi-circularity of the apex conforms more to the style
                        at Germigny-du-Pres, see (!!). Again, the presence of lintels in the arch suggests that this could be a combination of forms. I would suggest a date attribution of about
                        800, for the east window, based on the dates of these other 2 sites.   

        (!!!!)        Millard Hearn in "Romanesque Sculpture: The Revival of Monumental Stone Sculpture in the Eleventh and Twelth Centuries", notes the new use of the geometric forms
                        of diagonals and ovals in the capital at Saint Benigne (1016), and a lunette in the doorway sculpture at Arles-sur-Tech, (1046). The 45 degree angle at the top of the
                        lunette suggests it could be formed by two intersecting semicircles, each passing through the other's centre, a theme which is repeated later in England at Romsey Abbey,
                        (1140), in 2 capitals, one consisting of two semicircles, the other two figure 8's, in which the central node is separated from the inflexions, also demonstrating a geometric
                        intelligence. Hearn suggests the genesis of these designs is Carolingian, noting the difference with regional styles, and observing that the Christ in Majesty sculpture of the
                        lunette is typical of earlier Carolingian designs. The use of the lunette in the Saint Sernin sculptures again suggests a Carolingian influence. There is an additional awareness
                        of symmetry and asymmetry in the symmetric designs of the angels and the asymmetric attitudes of the saints, with the right hand in blessing. Delarnelle suggests a single
                        authorship due to similarities between the designs, but attributes mainly a Byzantine or Roman influence. Hearn notes the similarities with the design of Christ in Majesty
                        from the Carolingian text of the "Godescale Gospels", (783), and the same design from the Ada group, Berlin, (900), which is generally attributed as Ottonian, but, as
                        Hearn argues could also be derived from a Carolingian source. The capital at Cluny (probably 1100) again uses a lunette in a Corinthian format. Strafford notes the
                        existence of a crypt at Mont St-Michel from 900,  the capitals are similar to those at Bayeux  Cathedral, see (G).

       (!!!!!)         The ambo in Milan, (1106), shows an awareness of mirror symmetry in the spirals of the relief design, and, as Hearn notes, a new use of repeating arch forms in a square.
                         The cusped nature of the overlaps in the arches suggests a connection with later cusp architectural forms, for example at St. Anne's chapel, Malbork. There is also a use
                          of inflexions in a cross design, but they are not separated, unlike at Romsey Abbey. Hearn suggests a local influence, but there might be an Ottonian connection here. The
                          frieze at Modena Cathedral (1106) combines the repeating cusped form with a lunette, so it is possibly influenced by both Carolingian and Ottonian sources, see also (!!!!). 
                          The brading patterns at Anagni Cathedral and in the fragments at Santa Maria in Trastevere

      (!!!!!!)         The triangular motif is similar to English dogtooth and herringbone networks of Anglo-Saxon architecture, see (##), there is also documentary evidence that there was
                          interaction between Anglo-Saxon and Saxon culture in Lorsch at this time. The octagonal chapel at Aachen was built by Charlemagne, the attached palace shows
                          similarities with the development of radiating chapels in France, see (!!) and the plan here, which can be found in "Carolinigian and Romanesque Aechitecture
                          800-1200" by Kenneth Conant, see also (!!).

      (!!!!!!!)         The square headed capitals at Killaloe Cathedral are similar to the smaller ones at Cormac's chapel in Cashel, which Bell dates to the end of the 9th century, and Odda's
                          chapel, 10th century, in Gloucestershire. The archform is Norman due to the chevron moulding, but the Anglo-Saxon influence suggests that it belongs to the Anglo-Norman
                          style, see also (****) here.   

        (~)             According to "Romanesque Sculture in Italy", by Crichton, the dragon form is typically used in the Lombard school of architecture, he distingusihes between dragons with
                          twisted tails, as at San Jacob, Regensberg, and dragons with knotted tails, as, here, in San Antimo, see also (***). Dragons can be lawful or evil in Christian mythology,
                          for example the clash of the red and white dragon in Arthurian mythology.

       (~ ~)           Crichton also mentions the dragon form at Moscufo, 1159, and the opposite circular and pointed arch combinations, both constructed in 1176. Crichton notes the Lombard
                          influence first, while you can see both a Norman and Lombard design in the arches, see (***) and (!).

        (&)             The circular design of the capital at Ampney Crucis is similar to the form, commony found in Welsh churches of the geometric period, using Simon Jenkin's terminology in "England's Thousand
                           Best Churches"
        (^)            The details show St. James wearing a hat, it is recorded he could use magic, which he does against the enchanter Hermogenes. The dragon form could be a combination of
                         Lombard and Anglo-Saxon influences, due to the use of braiding and the connection with Santiago de Compostela, see also (~), (~ ~) and (!!!!!). 
        (^^)           The font detail depicts a green man, similar to one at Brecon Cathedral, with the other cusped form on the font typical of the Perpendicular period. The 10-point design
                          may be derived from an Anglo-Saxon source, see (\\\\\) here.

        (A)            The exterior arcade of Cormac's chapel bears a striking resemblance to the three-shaft arcading used at St. Laurence's church, Bradford-on-Avon, and the upper window at
                         Abernothy round tower, examined by Clapham in "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest", and E.A.Fisher in "Anglo-Saxon Towers" respectively, see (o) and
                         (C) here. The pillars used in the exterior window, apse and the interior resemble those at All Saint's church, Brixworth, and, in an another arcaded form, at Bradford-on-Avon,
                         see here. The towers form a westwork, similar to a series of designs in Germany,  for which  connections between  Anglo-Saxons and Saxons are known. All Saint's church is
                         7th century, (Clapham), and the arcading at St. Laurence's may be about 700, according to H.M.Taylor in "Anglo-Saxon Architecture", or early 10th century (Clapham). The
                          conventional date for Cormac's chapel is 1127, Cormac being the king of Munster from 1127-1134, placing it in the Anglo-Norman period, but, as noted with the round tower,
                          see (\\\\\\\) here, there may have been a previous Anglo-Saxon chapel, or the designs in England and Scotland could have influenced travelling Irish monks. Similar considerations
                          may apply to Kilmalkedar church, in county Kerry, which is thought to have been influenced by Cormac's chapel.

        (B)             The designs at Cormac's chapel are typical of the Anglo-Norman period, with the use of corner and square-headed capitals, see here and (A). "The Oxford Illustrated
                          History of Ireland", edited by R.F.Foster, describes Cormac's chapel as "heavily influenced by English Romanesque. It's context is the 12th century reform of the Irish
                          church and the growing closeness between Ireland and Anglo-Norman England".  The Norman invasion of Ireland by Strongbow is 1171, but the book mentions a charter
                          1175-76, which states that the townsmen of Chester had enjoyed a steady trade with Dublin during the reign of King Henry I, (1100-1130).

        (C)             The capitals in the doorway at St. Michael's are in the volute style, see (*******),  the wall painting carries a wave pattern, possibly the form of a dragon, and is claimed to
                           be medieval,  according to "Historic churches in Gloucestershire", Britain Express,  with the adjacent arch being Norman, see (B) here.

        (D)              The font and volute capitals might be Anglo-Norman, due to the combination of braids in the Anglo-Saxon and Norman styles, see (*****), and the jambs below the capitals.

        (E)               The archway at Bishop's Frome has 3 orders and the typical chevron design, the volute capitals at Bishop's Frome and Yarkhill are similar, with a clustering of 3, see

        (F)                The capital fragment is from Old Sarum castle, according to Zarnecki, though similar designs are found at Glastonbury Abbey, see (+++++++++++).

        (G)                 The herringbone stonework is typical of the Anglo-Saxon period, and predates Norman influence.

         (H)               Work of the Hereforshire School, 12th century, with a Romanesque arcade, according to the Historic Herfordshire Guide.

          (I)                 There is evidence of herringbone masonry in the church walls, and the window is splayed, making it typical of the Anglo-Saxon style, even though the church is built within
                               the remains of an 11th century Norman motte and bailey castle.

          (J)                  The Norman style is evident from the chevron markings in the arch of the doorway and in the font, where they are reflected into a lozenge pattern. The  capitals are volutes
                                 with wave patterns, which are further explored in the inner and outer orders of the arch.
          (K)              It is unusual to find  corner capitals, see (+++++++++++), and volute capitals, see (G),  in close  proximity, the architectural feature being suggested in the asymmetric
                              facial gestures of the volutes on either side of the archway.  The square capital heads of the volutes suggest that their style is Anglo-Norman,

          (L)                The volute capitals develop the scrollwork found in Ionic architecture. The first capital uses a fuller spiral pattern, while the second capital uses double grooving with the
                               combination of an inflexion and a spiral.

          (M)              The wave pattern on the font has transverse intersections with the baseline, a Norman feature.

          (N)               The boss shaped ripost is a Welsh design, the circular form connected to the Geometric style of architecture and the Cistercian style,  dating it about 1240.

          (O)                The drum capital design is similar to those at Great Rissington, see (L), below what appears to be a Norman transitional arch.  There is some argument that the foliage
                                element might be linked to the curvilinear period, but it is not particularly naturalistic, and appears to be an inverted fleur-de-lys.
          (P)                As in (J), (M), the font displays an interest in wave patterns, possibly associated with the resurrection, further developed with spiral forms, see (L). The first detail might
                               be a depiction of the tree of life, a Christian symbol associated with spirals, see my book Christian Geometry: the Geometry of Light, available for download here.